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Worldwide List of Per Se Corporations

Worldwide List of Per Se Corporations

by John Anthony Castro, J.D., LL.M.

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What Is a Per Se Corporation?

A per se corporation is a foreign corporation that, under the U.S. entity classification regulations, is automatically deemed to be a corporation and is ineligible to elect U.S. federal income tax treatment as anything else on IRS Form 8332; also known as the check-the-box option.


A U.S. Corporation is a corporation created or organized in or under the law of the United States or any State. IRC § 7701(a)(3)-(4); Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-2(b). A U.S. Corporation is also any entity that makes an election to be taxed as a Corporation in accordance with the Entity Classification Regulations; also known as the "check-the-box" regulations since you make the election by checking a box on IRS Form 8832. Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-3.

A Foreign Corporation is any business entity formed or created under foreign law. Entities specifically listed by country in Regulations are known as Per Se Corporations. Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-2(b)(8)(i).

In the world of international tax planning, a per se corporation is a company that is organized under the laws of a foreign country and, because of distinctive corporate features, is mandatorily taxed as a C Corporation with no eligibility to elect otherwise in accordance with the Entity Classification Regulations.

Before we review this list of per se corporations, it is important to note our firm's position on the default classification of foreign entities for U.S. tax purposes. It is our firm's position that the foreign equivalent of LLCs are actually flow-through disregarded entities by default: read here.

This legal position is extremely beneficial to someone with either Section 965 exposure (we can lawfully avoid exposure) or someone receiving income from a foreign entity in a non-treaty jurisdiction (we can covert the income into effectively tax-free income by claiming a credit for taxes paid by the company).

List of All Per Se Corporations

Here is a list of all per se corporations in the world as listed under Treas Reg. § 301.7701-2(b)(8)(i):

  • American Samoa, Corporation
  • Argentina, Sociedad Anonima
  • Australia, Public Limited Company
  • Austria, Aktiengesellschaft
  • Barbados, Limited Company
  • Belgium, Societe Anonyme
  • Belize, Public Limited Company
  • Bolivia, Sociedad Anonima
  • Brazil, Sociedade Anonima
  • Bulgaria, Aktsionerno Druzhestvo.
  • Canada, Corporation and Company
  • Chile, Sociedad Anonima
  • People's Republic of China, Gufen Youxian Gongsi
  • Republic of China (Taiwan), Ku-fen Yu-hsien Kung-szu
  • Colombia, Sociedad Anonima
  • Costa Rica, Sociedad Anonima
  • Cyprus, Public Limited Company
  • Czech Republic, Akciova Spolecnost
  • Denmark, Aktieselskab
  • Ecuador, Sociedad Anonima or Compania Anonima
  • Egypt, Sharikat Al-Mossahamah
  • El Salvador, Sociedad Anonima
  • Estonia, Aktsiaselts
  • European Economic Area/European Union, Societas Europaea
  • Finland, Julkinen Osakeyhtio/Publikt Aktiebolag
  • France, Societe Anonyme
  • Germany, Aktiengesellschaft
  • Greece, Anonymos Etairia
  • Guam, Corporation
  • Guatemala, Sociedad Anonima
  • Guyana, Public Limited Company
  • Honduras, Sociedad Anonima
  • Hong Kong, Public Limited Company
  • Hungary, Reszvenytarsasag
  • Iceland, Hlutafelag
  • India, Public Limited Company
  • Indonesia, Perseroan Terbuka
  • Ireland, Public Limited Company
  • Israel, Public Limited Company
  • Italy, Societa per Azioni
  • Jamaica, Public Limited Company
  • Japan, Kabushiki Kaisha
  • Kazakstan, Ashyk Aktsionerlik Kogham
  • Republic of Korea, Chusik Hoesa
  • Latvia, Akciju Sabiedriba
  • Liberia, Corporation
  • Liechtenstein, Aktiengesellschaft
  • Lithuania, Akcine Bendroves
  • Luxembourg, Societe Anonyme
  • Malaysia, Berhad
  • Malta, Public Limited Company
  • Mexico, Sociedad Anonima
  • Morocco, Societe Anonyme
  • Netherlands, Naamloze Vennootschap
  • New Zealand, Limited Company
  • Nicaragua, Compania Anonima
  • Nigeria, Public Limited Company
  • Northern Mariana Islands, Corporation
  • Norway, Allment Aksjeselskap
  • Pakistan, Public Limited Company
  • Panama, Sociedad Anonima
  • Paraguay, Sociedad Anonima
  • Peru, Sociedad Anonima
  • Philippines, Stock Corporation
  • Poland, Spolka Akcyjna
  • Portugal, Sociedade Anonima
  • Puerto Rico, Corporation
  • Romania, Societate pe Actiuni
  • Russia, Otkrytoye Aktsionernoy Obshchestvo
  • Saudi Arabia, Sharikat Al-Mossahamah
  • Singapore, Public Limited Company
  • Slovak Republic, Akciova Spolocnost
  • Slovenia, Delniska Druzba
  • South Africa, Public Limited Company
  • Spain, Sociedad Anonima
  • Surinam, Naamloze Vennootschap
  • Sweden, Publika Aktiebolag
  • Switzerland, Aktiengesellschaft
  • Thailand, Borisat Chamkad (Mahachon)
  • Trinidad and Tobago, Limited Company
  • Tunisia, Societe Anonyme
  • Turkey, Anonim Sirket
  • Ukraine, Aktsionerne Tovaristvo Vidkritogo Tipu
  • United Kingdom, Public Limited Company
  • United States Virgin Islands, Corporation
  • Uruguay, Sociedad Anonima
  • Venezuela, Sociedad Anonima or Compania Anonima

In closing, please note that the IRS has allowed for the use of a Type F Tax-Free Corporate Reorganization to purge the per se corporate entity type, which will then permit “check-the-box” planning. PLR 201152015.

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About the Author

John Anthony Castro, J.D., LL.M., is the Managing Partner of Castro & Co., the author of International Taxation in Plain English as well as International Estate Planning in Plain English, an esteemed graduate of Georgetown University Law Center in Washington DC, an OPM Fellow at Harvard Business School, and an internationally recognized tax attorney with offices in New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Chicago, Dallas, and Washington DC.

To provide feedback on this article or suggest an idea for a future article, please contact Tiffany Michelle Hunt, J.D., LL.M., Director of Tax Planning at Castro & Co., at

Bluebook Citation: John Anthony Castro, Worldwide List of Per Se Corporations, Int’l Tax Online Law Journal (Mar. 6, 2018) url.